Jumat, 04 Juni 2010

Applied Linguistics

Applied Linguistics

Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology . Major branches of applied linguistics include bilingualism and multilingualism, computer-mediated communication (CMC), conversation analysis, contrastive linguistics, language assessment, literacies, discourse analysis, language pedagogy, second language acquisition, lexicography, language planning and policies, pragmatics, forensic linguistics, and translation.

The Role of A.L.: Stern’s Model Revisited
AL: Defined
The Macro View: the study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems.
The Micro View: the study of second and foreign language learning and teaching.

Theoretical and applied linguistics.
Theoretical linguistics: general principles of the structure and functioning of languages.
Applied linguistics : the application of the ideas and methods of linguistics to practical problems which have something to do with language, esp. the analysis of second-language teaching.
Foreign language teaching
Problems related to teaching methods (textbooks, teachers).
Problems related to the addressees of teaching (learners) & teaching and learning processes.
Acquiring of foreign language as:
acquisition (spontaneous, unconscious process comparable with the infant’s acquisition of mother tongue; universal grammar) vs. learning (a conscious process based on instruction).
The learner
The learner: age, intelligence, cognitive styles, learning styles, motivation, attitudes to learning.
Goals of foreign language teaching and learning
Performance of cognitive, interactive, textual functions.
Cognitive function: getting a grasp of the world (mapping, categorization).
Interactive function: getting a contact of other users of the same language (to appeal, to carry out intentions, to attain the goals).
Textual function: production of meaningful statements, forming of meaningful texts, comprehension.
The Big Picture
Globalisation, Liberalisation, Participation, Innovation, Education and training policy replaces industrial policy as the means by which governments seek to make regions economically competitive.
Widening participation
Widening participation policies adopted by successive British governments have been focused in two conflicting directions:
emancipatory and empowering for the individual: stimulate the growth of autonomous, entrepreneurial, IT-literate, multi-skilled individuals capable of creating and taking advantage of the opportunities inherent in a post fordist economy .
ensuring a supply of appropriately skilled workers for industry: create a compliant low-expectation labour force inured to the demands of flexibilisation in order to attract inward investment not on the basis of high skills available but on the basis of low costs.
Models of Teaching and Learning
The core of the teaching process is the arrangement of environments within which the students can interact and study how to learn (Dewey, 1916).
Model of learning = a learning environment. It is ranging from planning curriculums, courses, units, and designing instructional materials.

The social family: Building the learning community
When we work together we generate a collective energy that we call synergy.
Classroom management is a matter of developing cooperative relationships in the classroom.
Cooperative learning procedures facilitate learning across all curriculum areas and ages, improving self-esteem, social skill and solidarity, academic learning goals ranging from the acquisition of information and skill .
Role playing
Role playing leads students to understand social behavior, their role in social interactions, and ways of solving problems more effectively.
Mnemonics (memory assists)
Mnemonics are strategies for memorizing and assimilating information. Teachers can use mnemonics to guide their presentations of material (teaching and such a way that students can easily absorb the information).
Nondirective Teaching
Developed from counseling theory, the model emphasizes a partnership between students and teachers.
The teacher provides information about how much progress is being made and helps the students solve problems.
How to do nondirective teaching?
First, it is used as the basic model for the operation of entire educational programs, second , it is used in combination with other models to ensure that contact is made with the students, third, it is used when students are planning independent and cooperative study projects, fourth, it is used when counseling students.

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