Partners in Learning
From Dyads to Group Investigation,Understand definition of role playing in education.
Put students into a ‘cooperative set” by which I mean by an organization for cooperative learning – like dyads and triads.
It is easier for students to learn to work together when they are not mastering complex activities at the same time.
By having learning communities, we teach students to work together to gather and analyze information, build and test hypotheses, and to coach one another as they develop skills.
Purposes and assumptions
The synergy generates more motivation and competitive environments. The feeling of connectedness.
The member of cooperative groups learn from one another. Each learner has more helping hands than a structure that generates isolation.
Interacting with one another produces cognitive as well as social complexity (than solitary study) .
Avoid alienation and loneliness.
Increases self esteem through the feeling of being respected.
The role of individuals
Developing partnerships does not imply that individual effort is not required, each individual contributed ideas and studied the ideas of others
Recognize that all group members share the same goal.
Know that every person in your group matters and has voice.
Training for interdependence
In addition to practice and training for more efficient cooperative behavior, procedures for helping students become truly interdependent are available.
There are card games where success depends on “giving up” valuable cards to another player and communication games where success requires taking the position of another.
The specialists from all teams would gather together and study their assignment and become tutor for the original groups, responsible for summarizing information and presenting to them.
The group will divide responsibility for creating mnemonics for aspects of data or take responsibility for parts of information to be learned.
The famous one known as JIGSAW.
Motivation: from extrinsic to intrinsic?
When students cooperative over learning tasks, they become more interested in learning for its own sake rather than for external rewards.
In Group investigation, students are organized into democratic problem solving-groups that attack academic problems and are taught democratic procedures and scientific methods of inquiry as they proceed.
It engages in solving a social or interpersonal problems.
Provide an experience-based learning situation .
The philosophical underpinnings
The role of education in improving the capacity of individuals to reflect on the ways they handle information and on their concepts, beliefs, values.
Knowledge is not conveyed to us merely through our sensory interaction with environment, but that we must operate on experience to produce knowledge.
Individual differences are the strength of a democracy, and negotiating among them is a major democratic activity.
Orientation to the model
Thelen (1960) rejects the normal classroom order that develops around the basic values of comfort of keeping the teacher happy.
The teacher’s task is to participate in the activities, develop the methods and rules.
Each inquiry starts with a stimulus situation to students.
The two concepts of (1) inquiry and (2) knowledge are central to this model.
Inquiry is stimulated by confrontation with a problem, and knowledge results from the inquiry.
Students must thus be conscious of method so that they may collect data, associate and classify ideas recalling past experience, formulate and test hypotheses, study sequences and modify plans.
Activities or Inquiry?
The elements of inquiry: puzzlement, self-awareness, methodology, and reflection. Activities are potential channels for inquiry, but inquiry must emanate from the motivations and curiosity of students. Activities cease to be inquiry when the teacher is the sole source of the problem identification and the formulation of plans.
The application of the universals and principles drawn from past experience to present experience.
“knowledge is unborn experience…knowledge lies in the basic alternative orientations and preposition through which new orientations can be built (Thelen, 1960, p.51)”.
Why should inquiry take place in groups?
Inquiry has emotional aspects – emotions rising from involvement and growing self awareness.
While learning situation is “one which involves the emotions of the learner”. The group is both an arena for personal needs (individuals with their anxieties, doubts, and private desires) and also an instrument for solving social problems.
The model of teaching
The model begins by confronting the students with a stimulating problem. The confrontation may be confronted verbally or actual experience. If the students react, the teacher draws their attention to the differences in their reaction, As the students become interested in the differences, the teachers draws them toward formulating and structuring problems, students analyze the required roles, organize themselves, act, and report the results.
Phases in syntax
Students encounter puzzling situation, students explore reaction to the situation, students formulate study task and organize for study, independent and group study students analyze progress and process, recycle activity.
Principles of Reaction
The teacher’s role is one of counselor, consultant, and friendly critic. He or she must guide over three levels:
The problem-solving or task level (what is the problem? What are the factors involved?)
The group management (what information do we need now? How we can organize ourselves to get it?
The level of individual meaning (how do you feel about the conclusion?)